• Key theories of leadership and management.

Teams that are led by leaders perform with better management.

Leaders play a crucial role in promoting patient-centered care and acting as change agents.

It is essential that leaders and their teams demonstrate emotional intelligence in making difficult decisions and courage to act in the best interests of the organization, regardless of the consequences.

Managing is all about processes – the day-to-day running of known procedures.

The purpose of leadership is to continuously review, explore, and improve possible improvements and changes.

Leadership and management are two different aspects of the coin with the same approach to obtain a better outcome for the betterment of health and environment for care.

Leaders and managers in adult care face certain conflicts in addition to the positive outcome approach such as managing a team and facility in a high stakes industry.

With the increasing workload and increasing uncertainty, they must adapt.

The majority of healthcare leaders, however, lack formal leadership training.

Moreover, they do not have the time to pursue leadership training and Innovative leadership Innovative leadership to priority.

Healthcare offers unique challenges that are not addressed by traditional leadership and professional development programs.

Giving attention to the leadership as well as management wisely can resolve a lot of issues.




Following are the key theories of leadership and management

(1) The great man theory

(2) The behavioral theory

(3) The Transactional theory

(4) Transformational leadership theory

  1.  The great man theory

Leadership is a genetic trait, not a learned one.

It asserts that leadership is an essential quality, a theory that was very popular in the 19th century.

An intelligent, brave, confident, intuitive, and charming leader often possesses these natural attributes.


2. The behavioral theory

A behavioral theory of leadership studies how an individual’s environment, not natural abilities, shape their leadership abilities.

Conditioning is a key concept in behavioral theory.

According to conditioning, people will behave in a certain way in response to their environment.

3. The transactional theory

A transactional theory of leadership is a method of analyzing leadership as a scheme of rewards and punishments.

Results-driven and hierarchical leadership are viewed as effective leadership.

The order is prioritized over creativity by transactional leaders.

4. Transformational Leadership Theory

Relationship theories, also known as Transformational Leadership theories, highlight the relationship between leaders and followers.

This theory describes the kind of leader who inspires and motivates their followers, enabling them to improve in whatever they do.

Besides theory, some of 5 styles of leadership and management styles include:

  1. The transactional leadership style

The performance of a group is crucial to the success of transactional leadership.

A transactional relationship is viewed as being the best way for healthcare executives to interact with staff.

Members of staff implicitly accept leadership’s orders when they accept positions.

Employees perform orders and are paid based on the work they do. Leadership in transactions emphasizes:

  • Rule, standard, and procedure respect
  • Clear definition of the role
  • Supervision at close range

An individual performs at his or her best in an environment where clear chains of command exist.

People meet their goals when they are closely supervised.

Following the orders and instructions of their superiors is the main responsibility of staff members.

2. Innovative Leadership and management  style

A health care organization that fosters innovation decisions by management so that leadership can succeed in unpredictable situations and foster an environment conducive to innovation.

Innovative leadership is based on innovative management. following is the factor included leadership and management:

  • Adjusting to change
  • Enhancing team effectiveness
  • Making decisions
  • Managing multiple stakeholders


3. Charismatic leadership:

Communication in an emotionally charged manner is a crucial skill for charismatic leaders.

The people they lead to benefit from their visions expressed with power and inspired trust.

Qualities characteristic of charismatic leaders include the following:

  • Genuine emotional expression affects how others feel. Although mostly positive, these emotions span a variety of emotions.
  • To connect emotionally, one needs to be sensitive to other people’s feelings.
  • An important aspect of emotional control is maintaining composure while regulating emotional displays.
  • Being socially expressive involves engaging others and having excellent public speaking skills.
  • Reading and interpreting social cues and displaying tact and sensitivity as a result of social sensitivity is integral to social sensitivity.
  • Being able to connect socially and emotionally with any type of person is part of social control.
4. Situational Leadership:

Leading differently depends on the situation, a philosophy that’s embraced by healthcare leaders.

Identifying the best leadership approach for a given situation requires situational leadership.

As an example, situations like staff training for new tasks may be handled in a way where situational leaders give many orders but also offers a lot of support.

A situational leader will offer minimal guidance and support to staff members who are in charge of tasks they are highly skilled at.

Situational leadership encompasses four general leadership approaches:

  • Speaking-It is leaders who provide direction on how to proceed.
  • Selling-Interacting with people and selling ideas are two ways leaders convince them to support their visions.
  • Engaging- By sharing ideas and taking part in decision-making, leaders encourage people to become involved.
  • Delegating- A leader delegated responsibility for completing a task, and he offered little input.

5. Transformational Leadership:

In transformational leadership, staff members are empowered to initiate changes that will transform a healthcare organization for the better.

Employees of all positions should be taught the leadership process by transformational leaders.

A leadership style based on the premise that anyone can display leadership, regardless of their job description.

Transformative leadership consists of the following elements:

  • Intellectual stimulation- Innovation is fostered by transformational leaders, and they inspire their followers to participate in learning opportunities and innovate new approaches.
  • Individualized consideration- Transformational leaders invest in the success of their followers through communication, sharing ideas, and building relationships. Team members are also recognized for their contributions.
  • Inspirational motivation- Transformational leaders articulate clear visions and foster passion among staff members to realize that vision.
  • Influence is based on idealized principles. Leadership that transforms is modelled by transformational leaders. As a leader, you emulate your ideas and behaviours.

1.2. Describe how theoretical models of leadership and management are applied to practice through two
(2) examples of effective leadership and management models in adult care provision.

To deliver good health care, leadership and management are crucial. Leadership produces visions that are communicated

to others and strategies developed to execute them.

Motivation is a key characteristic, as well as the ability to negotiate for resources and other sources of support to achieve goals.

There are many different ways to define leadership, depending on the application.

Leadership models vary, and some leaders adopt or adapt different ones based on their situation.

The different leadership models are used as guidelines that specify specific leadership behaviours

based on the environment and situation in which they were observed.

Leads by example the difference between a leadership style and a leadership style is the way

a person leads based on a combination of their personality, industry, workplace culture, and ideals adapted from various leadership models

Health governance is a fascinating, dynamic, and far-reaching area of health administration.

During the late 1900s, corporate scandals were becoming more serious,

leading to the concept being developed, and he remains highly concerned with corporate risks today.

The importance of good health management is becoming increasingly understood by small and large health care systems alike.

Each of these topics is addressed in Corporate Governance, along with how they are aligned or

at odds or how they conflict with organizational and market dynamics, as well as society’s needs,

the environment, quality of life, economic health, etc.

Leadership and management modules-

A leadership model encompasses a range of different styles of leadership. In general, leadership is based on the following:

Team-oriented leadership:

This company sets a positive example by fostering a collaborative work environment in which each employee is encouraged to take advantage of their strengths in order to reach their full potential as an individual and as a team.

Authoritarian leadership:

The task-oriented leadership of autocrats has nothing to do with collaboration. They motivate their employees through rules and punishments, insisting on full authority over their team.

Shared vision and strategy: A leader’s most significant liability may be putting their aim and vision into order.

The vision guides the enterprise’s direction and larger scope by allowing leaders to establish the norms.

Based on it, persons are authorized to operate independently, judiciously, and independently.

Having an overarching vision sets the stage for the hopes, dreams, and desires of individuals involved in a knowledge-based workforce,

and defines the scope of each individual’s work within the framework of that vision.

Following are the steps to that include leadership and management models:

  • Performance Management:

The aims, future goals, and development needs of each individual are reviewed, monitored, and planned together with your team. Leadership involves setting clear expectations, monitoring performance, and providing feedback.

  • Managing Underperformance:

Poor performance is a skill that can be learnt, so there is no need to worry about it. Various factors can lead to performance issues. Even the most assiduous of professionals can experience performance issues, whether it relates to organizational change, new technology, or a bad run of luck. The  priority in adult care is patient safety, so handling performance issues are secondary.

  • Delegation:

Assistive personnel who are unlicensed generally perform tasks or activities associated with patient care for their employer but remain accountable for their performance. Leaders can guarantee that work gets done, freeing up time to undertake the higher-level tasks. Delegation offers a manager the opportunity to show trust in his or her team, thus representing one of the delegation’s key benefits.

  • Governance

As long as new policies and technologies enable providers and staff to deliver safe, high-quality care while remaining fiscally responsible, everyone is focused on what’s important: Providing safe, high-quality care at an affordable price. A provider must comply with this regulation by maintaining effective governance, which includes assurance and auditing processes. These processes and systems need to assess, monitor and mitigate any risks related to the health, safety and welfare of people using services. An example of good governance is NHS in England

  • Review and respond to policy driver

In healthcare, policies play a vital role in setting a general course of action that guides desired outcomes and guiding decisions for protecting the care and the career example from vulnerable situations Care Act 2014. In the public health environment, policies should be a fundamental tool for delivering safe, high-quality care at an affordable price. Maintaining the updated policies in the care system data and accordingly explaining the staff is the crucial role of leadership and management in adult care

  • Best practice and positive outcome/improving service:

As healthcare professionals focus on patient safety, quality, and satisfaction, as well as patient-centered care tactics to improve access and satisfaction, they can work toward improving patient care. Patients’ suffering can be reduced if providers pay more attention to their needs. Monitoring, assessing, and improving healthcare quality standards is a systematic approach taken by healthcare organizations. Improving health care can lower costs, improve provision, and streamline services which indirectly provide a positive outcome.

  • Self-management:

Practicing and acquiring skills that enable an individual to manage their health condition on a daily basis, engaging in critical behaviors that are essential to managing their condition, making informed decisions about their care, and engaging in healthy behavior to manage their illness, whether or not a health care system is involved. Self-management is simply a way for people with long-term conditions to live with a health condition more effectively.

1.3. Refer to evidence provided in 1.2 and explain potential conflicts which may occur when applying the identified theoretical models of leadership and management.

Besides managing a team and facility in a high stakes industry, leaders and managers in adult care face certain conflict situations.

They may be due to the increasing workload and increasing uncertainty.

However, most healthcare leaders lack formal leadership training.

A leadership education would require a great deal of time for them.

Typical leadership and management programs do not address the challenges of healthcare.

A lot of issues can be resolved by paying attention to leadership and management in a wise way.

Due to the wide range of differences, disputes may arise in a variety of situations.

As a result of the wide range of differentiation, disputes may arise from three different sources.

Economic conflict, Value conflict, Power conflict.

The majority of care conflicts are caused by disagreements due to the diversity of needs.

People do not express grievance and unhappiness for fear of upsetting someone, therefore, avoiding conflict

Causes of conflict in care
  1. Organizational values

It is easy to conclude that the group value of the organization comes from the set of values of the individual employees,

as they form specific behavioral norms and help direct employees towards achieving the goals of the organization.

In parallel, conflict resolution can also be influenced by individual beliefs, values, and experiences.

Mayer describes conflict as a feeling, a disagreement, incompatibility of interests, a disagreement regarding worldviews or behavior.

2. Professional values.

Value clashes can lead to unintended conflicts. There might be cultural differences among people regarding punctuality, gender roles, standards of living, and apprehensive professional behavior, for example.

3. Pressurized on work

Employers that ignore employees’ needs or set unrealistic expectations can often lead to disputes at work. Employee schedules that make childcare difficult, for example, Conflict in the care  could be the result of:

  • Poor management.
  • Unfair treatment.
  • Roles are not clearly defined.
  • Insufficient training.
  • Poor communication.
  • Poor work environment.
  • Lack of equal opportunities.
  • Harassment and bullying.
  • A change in the products, the organizational chart, the appraisal system or the compensation plan.


  • Swot analysis provides a way to evaluate a company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats by focusing on its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threatsFollowing are ways to conduct swot analysis in the management and leadership fields
    • Decide what you want to accomplish with your SWOT analysis
    • Conduct market and business research
    • Strengthen your business by listing its advantages
    • Weaknesses in your organization
    • Establish priorities based on SWOT analysis

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